Related organizations Tribal clients Trips funded Timeline of events Category. Indian music ranges over various traditions and regional styles. In the 20th century, Indian literature was influenced by the works of Bengali poet and novelist Rabindranath Tagore ,  who was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature. Reed's strategy initially met with success, as Skandalakis narrowly defeated Day in the Republican primary run-off. Founding the Christian Coalition. An acute balance of payments crisis in forced the nation to liberalise its economy ;  since then it has slowly moved towards a free-market system   by emphasising both foreign trade and direct investment inflows.
Thus, cricket is, by far, the most popular sport in India. India has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events: The first Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix featured in late but has been discontinued from the F1 season calendar since India has traditionally been the dominant country at the South Asian Games. An example of this dominance is the basketball competition where the Indian team won three out of four tournaments to date.
The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and the Arjuna Award are the highest forms of government recognition for athletic achievement; the Dronacharya Award is awarded for excellence in coaching.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Republic of India. For other uses, see India disambiguation. Country in South Asia. Area controlled by India shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green. Hindi English [b] . State level and Eighth Schedule . History of India and History of the Republic of India. Government of India and Constitution of India.
Administrative divisions of India. Political integration of India. Foreign relations of India and Indian Armed Forces. Economic History of India and Economic development in India. Textile industry in India.
Music of India and Dance in India. Cinema of India and Television in India. India portal Asia portal. English is an additional official language for government work alongside Hindi.
However, this is disputed , and the region bordering Afghanistan is administered by Pakistan. Archived from the original PDF on 17 March Retrieved 1 September Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 1 March Archived from the original on 30 August Retrieved 23 August National Informatics Centre in Hindi. Archived from the original on 8 November Retrieved 1 December Archived from the original PDF on 8 July Retrieved 26 December The Times of India.
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Army Navy Air Force. States and union territories of India. Members of the Commonwealth of Nations. Kitts and Nevis St. Commonwealth Secretariat - Member States. South Asian Free Trade Area. Immediately after the election, Reed shifted gears to corporate work. Bush's defeat of McCain in that primary came at a key moment and ended McCain's early momentum from an upset victory in the New Hampshire primary.
Reed apologized for the "appearance of conflict" but continued to accept the money until early , when Microsoft terminated Reed in the midst of the Indian gaming scandal. Some conservatives have criticized Reed's choice of clients and suggested that he has inappropriately profited from his credentials as a conservative Christian leader. A conservative Alabama group called Obligation, Inc.
In , Reed's firm "sent out a mailer to Alabama conservative Christians asking them to call then-Rep. Greenberg Traurig, in turn, hired Reed's firm to print the mailing. His candidacy attracted national media attention, and challenges from three opponents. Reed's principal opponent was David Shafer , a former executive director of the Georgia Republican Party recruited to the race by Congressman John Linder. Shafer campaigned on Republican gains made when he served as state executive director in the early s, but was hampered by his subsequent association with the failed campaigns of Mack Mattingly , Guy Millner and Clint Day in the later half of the decade.
The state convention, held at the Cobb Galleria in May , was the most heavily attended and longest running in the history of the party. Reed won on the first ballot, capturing almost 60 percent of the delegate vote against Shafer, who won 40 percent, and a third candidate, lobbyist Maria Rose Strollo, who won one percent. Reed was endorsed by the "Confederate Republican Caucus," a block of almost "heritage" activists who had participated in the state convention as a protest against the removal of the Confederate battle emblem from the State Flag.
The organization would later claim that they were "double-crossed" by Reed. Documents released by federal investigators in June show that Reed's campaign for State Chairman was partially financed with contributions from the Choctaws , an Indian gaming tribe represented by Abramoff.
The party experienced success in the elections under Reed's leadership. Saxby Chambliss was elected as U. Senator, and Sonny Perdue was elected as Governor.
Reed, however, was asked to relinquish his job as State Chairman by Perdue, whose long-shot candidacy was largely ignored by Reed in favor of Chambliss. Reed supported the candidacy of Congressman Bob Barr , who had moved into the neighboring district of Congressman John Linder and challenged his renomination.
Linder decisively defeated Barr. Speculation about a Reed candidacy for Lieutenant Governor began building shortly after the general election. Republican party leaders were unenthusiastic about the candidacy of Insurance Commissioner John Oxendine , who had been "exploring" a race for Lieutenant Governor for over a year.
Reed claimed support of the White House, access to the Bush fundraising apparatus and command of a large grass roots organization. His official declaration of candidacy on February 17, largely cleared the field of opposition; Keen, Stephens and Oxendine all left the race.
Keen, a former state chairman of the Christian Coalition, was the first to drop, followed quickly by Stephens. Although insisting at the time of Reed's entry into the race that he would "never" withdraw, Oxendine ended his candidacy two weeks later. Only Cagle, a relatively unknown lawmaker, remained in the race to challenge Reed. A poll conducted for Oxendine was the first indication of trouble for Reed.
Little attention was paid to the poll because Oxendine folded his own candidacy shortly after it was released. Reed himself dismissed the poll as a face-saving gesture by an embarrassed Oxendine. Reed's campaign experienced a loss of momentum with revelations about his role in the Jack Abramoff Indian lobbying scandal.
Email documents released in the investigation revealed details about Reed's financial relationships with Abramoff. Reed's early lead in fund-raising evaporated by December 31, , when disclosure reports showed Cagle raising almost twice as much money as Reed in the last six months of the year. Bob Irvin , a former U. House of Representatives Republican leader, was the first prominent Republican to publicly call on Reed to withdraw from the race. Sonny Perdue and the rest of the GOP ticket.
Reed rejected the petition as a useless stunt, and expressed confidence that his record and ideas would prevail. Aides to Speaker of the House Glenn Richardson, ostensibly neutral in the race, released a poll that showed Reed's mounting negatives could hurt Perdue and the Republican ticket. On March 21, , political consultant Matt Towery of Insider Advantage released a poll showing Reed represented an eight-point drag on the Perdue ticket. Insurance Commissioner John Oxendine , whose own ambitions had been upended by Reed's candidacy, endorsed Cagle in June , saying that Reed's nomination threatened the success of the Republican ticket.
Two dozen members of the Reed steering committee, including a Reed State Co-Chairman, resigned their affiliation with the Reed campaign and endorsed Cagle, but Reed continued his pursuit of the nomination.
Final returns show Reed losing by twelve percentage points, collecting 44 percent of the vote to Cagle's 56 percent. Reed was named in the scandal arising from lobbying work performed by Jack Abramoff on behalf of Indian gambling tribes.
E-mails released by federal investigators in June revealed that Reed secretly accepted payments from Abramoff to lobby against Indian casino gambling and oppose an Alabama education lottery.
These cases are being investigated by multiple federal and state grand juries and by the U. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs. Abramoff pleaded guilty to three felony counts in federal court, raising the prospects of Abramoff testifying against others. Those e-mails and other evidence revealed the participation of the Christian Coalition in the alleged fraud, particularly the Alabama chapter of the Christian Coalition, which received large amounts of donations from the casino money.
It is alleged that Abramoff engaged Reed to set up an anti-gambling campaign to include the U. To represent him in connection with the scandal, Reed retained defense attorney W. Eggleston served as White House associate counsel during the administration of President Bill Clinton. In December , three Texas public interest groups filed a complaint with Travis County Attorney David Escamilla on December 1, , alleging that Reed failed to register as a lobbyist in or when he was working for Abramoff.
On June 22, , the U. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs released its final report on the scandal. The report further states that under the guidance of the Mississippi Choctaw tribe's planner, Nell Rogers, the tribe agreed to launder money because "Ralph Reed did not want to be paid directly by a tribe with gaming interests. Reed has written six books; three non-fiction and three fictional political thrillers.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Ralph E. For other people named Ralph Reed, see Ralph Reed disambiguation. Georgia statewide elections, Archived from the original on September 12, Retrieved May 31, Archived from the original on November 2, Retrieved October 7, Leaders at the Center of the Conservative Crusade.