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There were 27, or Plan synoptique du port d'Ouchy x But did you know that paper can be made from About Us Help Center. The microscope itself was invented by Anton Von Leewenhoek in Lab 33 is "Respiration. Eat well, because tomorrow, sacrifice is expected.

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But if we drop something else in, watch out! Then they will scramble the food color into a most interesting situation. What shall we drop in to make it all happen? The second graders know! In this lab, we took some very small dishes off the shelf, and floated them in water. They settled in and floated. As they did so, each dish pushed a bit of water out of the way. If not enough water is pushed to the side, then the object would This is called Archimedes Principle, and we study it a bit more in 3rd grade.

Back to the pennies. Each group had 10 of them. We plopped one penny into the floating dish. It sank down a bit more into the water, but still floated. Plopping in a second penny did more of the same. How many pennies would our "boat" hold before it sank? It was fun to see the dish sink! Finally, everyone came up front and was handed a dime. We sank a "boat" on purpose, and challenged each student to drop the dime in the water.

Would the dime land in the underwater boat? It's harder than it looks! As the dime falls through the water, it makes its own currents that push it around.

These currents are called "eddy currents. Colored Ice We mixed up some water with food color and froze it overnight. What did we get? Colored ice cubes, of course. We watched it melt. We didn't stir it or shake the table. The entire beaker of water turned blue, very evenly. Then we mixed up some saltwater. We did the same thing, with a new colored ice cube. But the results were very different! As the colored ice cube melted, the colored, melted freshwater remained on top, making a beautiful blue ring!

The saltwater on the bottom is heavier than the freshwater on the top. So the melted blue water stayed there! In fact, at the end of school, 5 hours later, it still looks What can we learn from this little tabletop experiment? Freshwater remains on top. Different fish live in the different waters! Float a Coin Can you float a coin on top of water?

But a penny is too heavy. So is a dime. And forget about quarters and nickels, too. Yet there is a coin from Japan that can float The coin is a "yen. And while aluminum is lighter than the copper that makes up a penny, aluminum is still heavy enough to sink in water. So, we must devise another strategy. Because air above the water presses on the water's surface, there is something taking place called "surface tension. You can jump into a pool and sense this.

The "splash" is a little bit hard. After you're in the water, it's not so hard. We can do this with a fork, if we're careful. We can also float a metal paper clip. But a drop of soap will ruin the whole thing.

What does the soap do? It breaks up the Soap makes water "softer," and that's why we use it to clean dishes, laundry, and hands. First of all, we give the top a "twist" in order to spin it. This "twist" is called "torque. Next, the top spins. The top will keep spinning unless another force or forces cause it to stop. The fact that the top keeps spinning is called "inertia. What stops the top?

Mainly, two forces stop the top: Friction is when two surfaces such as the top and the table are not perfectly smooth. They rub against each other and create "drag" or even heat.

Did you see the special "upside down" tops in the lab, too? When they spin fast enough, inertia turns them upside down! They call it "wood pulp. But did you know that paper can be made from It looks like paper, and you can write on it, too. However, when we placed our "cornstarch paper" in water, it dissolved! Packing "peanuts" may also be made from cornstarch.

One advantage in doing so allows the packing peanuts to dissolve in the rain, making more room in the landfill for other things. We began our lab by dissolving salt in water some of it did not dissolve. We also dissolved some sugar in water it did dissolve.

Then we tried to mix a spoonful of sand into some water. It did not dissolve, of course. Water, however, can certainly dissolve most anything, including rock and sand. It just takes a few hundred thousand years to do so! We would have no power tools. Michael Faraday invented the electric motor in How does our electric motor work? The key is the coil, also called the armature.

When the coil comes in contact with the electricity, then the coil turns into a magnet. It is called an "electromagnet. And the magnets push away from each other. And when it swings around all the way, it turns itself "on" again.

And the whole process repeats. But this time we'll change something. Have you seen the tiny Christmas tree lights? Each group will receive a light along with their electric motor. We'll use alligator clip wires 'gators and we'll hook up our light to the 2 copper terminals.

Then we'll start the motor. What will we see? If we look carefully, we should see the light "pulsing" just a little. But then the motor turns itself "off" during the other half-turn. When it does so, the light brightens again. The whole idea of the motor turning itself "off" and "on" again is called The commutator for our motor is very simple -- just insulation removed from half of the wire.

And it doesn't get very hot. We wired up both of these types of lights in this lab. And since it's October, our L. Have you seen a traffic light lately? They have 3 different color L. Green, Yellow, and Red!

We'll use a plastic test tube with a lid, 2 AA batteries, a spring, some foil, maybe some cotton, and a light-emitting diode orange or yellow. It may be a nice night-light or a trick-or-treat safety electro-candle. The light will work because we will make sure electricity travels from the 2 AA batteries to the L.

If electricity travels in a good path that it can follow, then it's called a circuit. Our switch will simply be a wire we will cut A simple microscope has several parts. At the other end of the eyepiece tube is another lens called the objective lens. These two lenses work together to make the object look bigger. The object itself is placed on a flat place called a stage.

Below and sometimes above the stage is a light, also called "illumination. Most students did not see anything at first -- it just seemed to be a white blurry circle. But after focusing, something came into clear view. It was a pile of salt crystals! The question was asked, "Do you mean to say that we eat crystals? We have some big or perhaps small surprises in store! The microscope itself was invented by Anton Von Leewenhoek in Garden pea plants grow very quickly, so he grow thousands of them.

He was interested in how "traits" were passed off from parent to offspring. We learned that traits that always show up are called "dominant" traits. Traits that are overpowered by dominant traits don't always show up.

They are called "recessive" traits. For example, what kind of offspring will a "Tall Spool" and a "Short Spool" have? The tall child carries a "short trait. We take a look at the eyepiece. It is stamped "10x. But we must also look at the objective lens. We have 3 objective lenses on our 'scopes, but the one we'll use most is the "low power" objective. Our low power objective is "4x. We did a little multiplication lesson Our salt looked 40 times bigger!

We also looked at sugar. Then we looked at Epsom Salts magnesium sulfate. All 3 are crystals; all 3 looked different. Finally, we "flooded" the Petri dish with water and added some pieces of Alka-Seltzer. This produced a storm of bubbles! Looking at these bubbles under the microscopes was fun Each bubble contained a tiny amount of carbon dioxide gas. It is called copper chloride. And we'll take a look at red sand!

What is a crystal, anyway? A crystal is a repeating pattern, made of certain chemicals. Quartz is a crystal. Salt is a crystal. Sugar is a crystal. But is glass a true crystal?

Glass is more of a liquid that simply stopped flowing. That's why glass shatters! Without light, we cannot see. We can use the sun's energy, indirectly, to light things up at night, too. How does light behave? Light may "go through" something transmit. Light may be bent refract. Light may bounce off something reflect. And light may even "get stuck" in something absorb. We did some light tricks in the lab. We saw how a straw in water looks broken light is refracted.

We bounced light off the white board reflect. We shined some light into some water with food coloring absorb. And we saw how the light bounced off the ceiling from the water transmit, refract, reflect, absorb.

We could not see the laser until we dropped some flour and sugar in its path. Then it looked like Star Wars! Finally, we introduced what must surely be the world's coolest kaleidoscope. You must see it to believe it! Horse Race Derby They're off! Who will win the race? Will it be the chestnut 3 year-old, the black beauty, or the silver stallion? Vibrations are all around us. A thick guitar string vibrates, but a thin guitar string vibrates faster Sound waves are carried along by vibrations in the air.

And it is piled up above us It's called air pressure. A city in the mountains has somewhat less pressure because there's less air above it!

Our take-home gizmo from this lab is a tiny glass medicine vial. Fill it with water, then turn it upside down. We may thank air pressure. We may also thank the cohesion of water Lab 21 is "Kinetic Cuckoo. The bird is really a wooden model. It slides up and down a steel rod. We place the bird at the top of the rod, give it a nudge, and down it goes.

A spring causes it to peck-peck-peck all the way down. Kinetic energy is moving energy. Here at school, the maintenance crew often salts the steps How does this work? Salt melts ice because That is, the water is still very, very cold. But the ice "gets in the way" and prevents the water from turning into a solid.

We see this at work when we make homemade ice cream. The salt we use helps the ice to be slushy Within this cold environment, we make the ice cream. In the lab, we may place a piece of yarn on an ice cube, "salt it," wait a few minutes, and then we just might be able to pick up the ice cube with the yarn! The salt melts the top of the ice into water As it re-freezes, the yarn gets stuck there. And we may pick up the whole thing! But ask Mom first! Lab 23 is "Tuning Forks. We'll re-visit vibrations in this lab.

A tuning fork has two "points" called "tines. The air around the tines vibrates and these vibration travel to our ears, where the sound waves are collected. These waves are channeled into our ear canal, and they strike the eardrum, which also vibrates. These vibrations are converted to electrical signals, and these signals go right to our brain via the auditory nerve. All this is happening when we hear something! Our tuning forks will vibrate, and we may dunk them into the water.

The water will splash! The tuning forks may also be whacked, and then placed on a cup or foil pie pan. The cup vibrates; the foil pan vibrates, and we hear a squealing sound! We used 8 tuning forks, and each one vibrated a little differently. A tuning fork may also be placed on a guitar. The wood on the guitar vibrates, the air inside the guitar vibrates, and the sound waves come out into the air, where we hear them very well.

Lab 24 is "Static Electricity. They gather in one place That's called a "discharge. They may tend to gather in one place. When you touch the sweater They all jump to you. In extreme form, electrons that gather in such a way also cause lightning.

In the lab, we built an "electroscope" that showed electrons jumping from a balloon onto the electroscope. The foil on the electroscope moved mysteriously and we heard some pops! But was it really a mystery?

No, it was static electricity. Lab 25 is "Reading the Thermometer. When things get cool, they tend to contract get smaller. Our class thermometers contain red alcohol. There's no place to go but Just read the numbers Fahrenheit scale or Celsius scale and that will tell us the temperature of the surroundings. At the end of class, we took the temperature of We wrote down that temperature. We unscrewed the lid and took the temperature a second time.

What did we find? What did we expect? Since sand is a lot like a bunch of tiny rocks, when they shake together, they And so, when we took the temperature a second time, after the shaking, the sand was about 4 degrees warmer! Lab 26 is "The Siphon. The idea behind a siphon is that air pressure will actually push air from a higher place to a lower place through a tube.

Yes, it is, if you do it right. The tube that connects the high place and the low place must be full of water. And the high place must be higher than the low place, of course. When all is ready, we release our thumb from the tube and Did you know that Blue Heron Lake was drained I saw it happen. When the lake was dry, they dug out lots of dirt to make the lake deeper.

That's a good thing. What did they do with the dirt? And the school saved money, too. There are many steps to the siphon, and it takes at least two people to do it. Lab 28 is "The Wooden Car.

Our wooden cars, of course. We assemble them and choose a rubber band. We wind the rubber band around the rear axle, and let it go. Our cars scoot across the lab floor, and some jump ramps! We experiment in order to see which rubber bands serve as the best motors. So, we may accurately measure how far our cars will travel. We also have a tunnel and a ramp for high-performance wooden cars!

We notice rings in the wood. Looking more closely, we see that the rings have tiny pinholes, too. There are hundreds, or even thousands of these pinholes. What are they for? Each season, liquid flows up from the roots to the treetops.

If the ring is wide, then this means that there was a lot of rain that season. Either way, there's a ring. And that's how we may tell how old a tree is. The samples of wood we saw were cut from the branches of a much larger tree. The large tree was years old! It fell in midtown on July 22, It was not a hurricane, because hurricane winds go "round and round.

They were called "straight line winds. It was a dangerous storm! Lab 31 is "Arthropods. An arthropod is a name for a large group of living things. But so are scorpions, crabs, and lobsters! We looked at 8 different specimens in lab today.

Arthropods, also, may be "pets" or "pests. But a mosquito is a pest! And they are found in the air, on the ground, on the water, and under the water! Lab 32 is "Diffusion. The girls know about it. If you spill a little perfume on one side of the room, then it won't be long until everybody in the whole room smells it, too.

Inside the perfume bottle, the perfume is packed together very tightly. All the things that make up the perfume are close together. When the perfume spills, then the liquid spreads out. It even turns into gas. The "perfume gas" is really the same thing as the perfume liquid, just lots more spread out.

Inside the bottle, it is concentrated. In our lab, we used a dry, powdery chemical called "potassium permanganate. The chemical "spread out" into the water.

Diffusion is also when mom may be cooking in the kitchen, but you may smell the aroma in another part of the house. Does the food travel through the air to your nose? But tiny parts of the food do indeed travel. They are called "molecules," and they are "diffusing" into the air. Suppose you put one drop of milk into a swimming pool. What would happen to the milk? It would soon dissolve into the pool water.

Lab 33 is "Respiration. Human beings breathe, and we use our lungs to hold the air. When we take a breath, a muscle called the diaphragm expands. Our lungs get bigger, and air rushes in. The air pressure in our atmosphere causes the air to fill our lungs. When we "breathe out" or exhale , we force air out of our lungs with that same muscle. We made a model of the lungs. We cut the bottom of the bottle away and placed a piece of rubber there. Hanging down from the top of the bottle was a balloon, attached to the top.

When we pulled the bottom piece of rubber, the volume of the bottle increased. Air rushed in to the balloon at the top, making it bigger! We compared this to "inhaling. And what happened then? The top balloon became smaller. We forced air out of it. We compared that to "exhaling.

Of course, if it weren't for Earth's atmosphere, breathing would be impossible! All the air that surrounds planet Earth our atmosphere presses down on us. It has been measured at almost 15 pounds per square inch We don't feel it because we're used to it. But when our diaphragm expands and our lungs get bigger, air rushes in! Lab 34 is "The Roman Arch. An engineer makes things that help people.

The Romans made an aquaduct. It was a system of pipes that brought water from the mountains to the seaside. Since there was no fresh water in the Mediterranean Sea, they had to import it! That's what they did! And it is still standing today, years later. We are building "Roman Arches" in class. An arch has a base bottom , two sides buttresses , and many pieces that fit together to make it sturdy. The piece in the middle, at the top, is called the "keystone.

An arch is strong because two forces act upon it -- the downward force and a side-to-side force. In this way, each piece of the arch each block shares equally in the force. It's like 10 people pushing a wagon instead of one person.

We're knocking down the Roman Arch -- and rebuilding it! We'll remember how to build them, because when we practice these things, we improve our skills. The City Hall of Lausanne 4. The Casino of Montbenon 5. The Domain of Dorigny 6. Castle of Ouchy 8. Capitale to visit Lausanne has a variety of excursions and visits to sites, buildings, and other monuments which are related to the Olympic Movement and are indicative of its status.

Pierre de Coubertin and Lausanne The informations below are from the brochure created by Jean-Loup Chappelet for the th birthday of Pierre de Coubertin who lived in Lausanne for a large part of his life. International sports federations and organisations The City of Lausanne regards itself as the point of contact for international sports federations and organisations wishing to establish their headquarters here.

Beacon of academic excellence in sport management Over the years, thanks to the presence of the IOC and numerous international sport federations, Lausanne has become the administrative capital of sport. Lausanne has an average of During this month there is precipitation for an average of The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules, chief argent.

The city is divided into 18 quartiers , or districts, sometimes composed of several neighborhoods. It is composed of seven councilors French: One of the members act as mayor syndic. Directoral tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws decreed by the Communal Council are carried by the Municipality.

The regular election of the Municipality by any inhabitant valid to vote is held every five years. Any resident of Lausanne allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the Municipality. Since 14 April , due to the constitution by canton of Vaud not only Swiss citizen have the right to vote and elect and being elected on communal level, but also foreigners with a residence permit of at least 10 years in Switzerland and 3 years in the canton of Vaud. The delegates are elected by means of a system of Majorz.

The mayor is later on elected as such by a public election as well by a system of Majorz, while the heads of the other departments are assigned by the collegiate. The Communal Council Conseil communal holds legislative power. It is made up of members, with elections held every five years. The Communal Council decrees regulations and by-laws that are executed by the Municipality and the administration.

The sessions of the Communal Council are public. Unlike members of the Municipality, members of the Communal Council are not politicians by profession, and they are paid a fee based on their attendance.

Any resident of Lausanne allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the Communal Council. In the federal election for the Swiss National Council the most popular party was the PS which received The next three most popular parties were the PLR In the federal election, a total of 26, voters were cast, and the voter turnout was Lausanne has a population as of December [update] of , It has changed at a rate of 8.

There were 27, or In , most of the population spoke French 98, or There were 62 people who speak Romansh. In [update] there were live births to Swiss citizens and births to non-Swiss citizens, and in same time span there were deaths of Swiss citizens and non-Swiss citizen deaths. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 22 while the foreign population increased by There were 9 Swiss men and 57 Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland.

At the same time, there were non-Swiss men and non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland. The total Swiss population change in from all sources, including moves across municipal borders was an increase of and the non-Swiss population increased by people. This represents a population growth rate of 2. The age distribution, as of [update] , in Lausanne is; 11, children or 9. Of the adult population, 21, people or The senior population distribution is 11, people or 8.

As of [update] , there were 58, people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 48, married individuals, 7, widows or widowers and 10, individuals who are divorced. As of [update] the average number of residents per living room was 0. As of [update] , there were 62, private households in the municipality, and an average of 1.

Out of a total of 63, households that answered this question, Of the rest of the households, there are 13, married couples without children and 11, married couples with children.

There were 3, single parents with a child or children. There were 2, households that were made up of unrelated people, and 1, households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing.

In [update] there were 1, single family homes or There were 3, multi-family buildings Of the single family homes were built before , while were built between and The greatest number of single family homes were built between and The most multi-family homes were built before and the next most were built between and There were multi-family houses built between and In [update] there were 69, apartments in the municipality.

The most common apartment size was 3 rooms of which there were 22, There were 9, single room apartments and 7, apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 61, apartments As of [update] the average price to rent an average apartment in Lausanne was The average rate for a one-room apartment was The average apartment price in Lausanne was The historical population is given in the following chart: From the Reformation in the 16th century, the city was mostly Protestant until the late 20th century, when it received substantial immigration, particularly from largely Catholic countries.

Catholics now form a plurality of the city's population. From the census [update] , 47, people Of the rest of the population, there were 2, members of an Orthodox church 2. There were individuals 0. There were individuals who were Buddhist , individuals who were Hindu and individuals who belonged to another church.

In the crime rate, of crimes listed in the Swiss Criminal Code , in Lausanne was During the same period, the rate of drug crimes was Lausanne is served by an extensive network of local, national and international public transport.

Lausanne became the first city in Switzerland to have a rubber-tyred metro system, with the m2 Line which opened in October

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