Betting in poker
There are great differences between poker players and what they expect from a game, and these are reflected in the variants and stakes chosen. And he's only bet the river once, for value with a big hand as it turned out. Not doing so slows the game down and reduces the amount of hands players can see per hour. In no-limit games, a player may also go all in, that is, betting their entire stack at any point during a betting round. A straddle or sleeper blind may count as a raise towards the maximum number of raises allowed, or it may count separately; in the latter case this raises the maximum total bet of the first round.
About the Fibonacci Sequence
After the betting round ends, the dealer discards the top card of the deck. This is called a burn card. This is done to prevent cheating. The dealer then flips the next three cards face up on the table.
These cards are called the flop. These are communal cards that anyone can use in combination with their two pocket cards to form a poker hand. There is another round of betting starting with the player to the left of the dealer.
After the betting concludes, the dealer burns another card and flips one more onto the table. This is called the turn card. Players can use this sixth card now to form a five card poker hand. The player to the left of the dealer begins another round of betting. In many types of games, this is where the bet size doubles. Finally, the dealer burns a card and places a final card face up on the table.
This is called the river. Players can now use any of the five cards on the table or the two cards in their pocket to form a five card poker hand. There is one final round of betting starting with the player to the left of the dealer. After that, all of the players remaining in the game begin to reveal their hands. This begins with the player to the left of the last player to call.
It's called the showdown. The player who shows the best hand wins! There are cases where players with equal hands share the winnings. Click here for more info on who wins and about split pots. Well, it depends on whether you are playing limit hold'em or No limit Hold'em. In a limit game there is a cap: In Fixed limit games, each round of betting can consist of one bet and has a maximum number of three of allowable raises, known as the cap.
So, if a bet is made, that bet can only be raised three times, after which all players must call, or fold.
However, if only two players remain in the hand the cap is increased, to a maximum of five raises Unless you have something to start with, you're not apt to have anything worthwhile at the finish. There are some optimistic players who argue against this texas holdem strategy, but the law of averages is against them. They look at it this way.
If you take three aces, shuffle them in with four odd cards and deal them out, you will still have three aces, regardless of the order in which they turn up. That is very true, but the texas holdem strategy doesn't hold with seven cards taken at random, since there is no guarantee that three aces will be among them.
A player may fold by surrendering one's cards. Some games may have specific rules regarding how to fold: A player may check by tapping the table or making any similar motion. All other bets are made by placing chips in front of the player, but not directly into the pot "splashing the pot" prevents other players from verifying the bet amount. In general, the person to the left of the dealer acts first and action proceeds in a clockwise fashion. If any player has folded earlier, action proceeds to next player.
In games with blinds, the first round of betting begins with the player to the left of the blinds. In stud games, action begins with the player showing the strongest cards and proceeds clockwise.
If there is a bring-in, the first round of betting begins with the player obliged to post the bring-in. When checking, a player declines to make a bet; this indicates that they do not wish to open, but do wish to keep their cards and retain the right to call or raise later in the same round if an opponent opens.
In games played with blinds, players may not check on the opening round because the blinds are live bets and must be called or raised to remain in the hand. A player who has posted the big blind has the right to raise on the first round, called the option , if no other player has raised; if they decline to raise they are said to check their option.
If all players check, the betting round is over with no additional money placed in the pot often called a free round or free card. A common way to signify checking is to tap the table, either with a fist, knuckles, an open hand or the index finger s. If in any betting round it is a player's turn to act and the action is unopened, then the player can open action in a betting round by making a bet —the act of making the first voluntary bet in a betting round is called opening the round.
Some poker variations have special rules about opening a round that may not apply to other bets. For example, a game may have a betting structure that specifies different allowable amounts for opening than for other bets, or may require a player to hold certain cards such as "Jacks or better" to open.
Normally, a player makes a bet by placing the chips they wish to wager into the pot. Under normal circumstances, all other players still in the pot must either call the full amount of the bet or raise if they wish remain in, the only exceptions being when a player does not have sufficient stake remaining to call the full amount of the bet in which case they may either call with their remaining stake to go "all-in" or fold or when the player is already all-in.
To raise is to increase the size of an existing bet in the same betting round. A player making the second not counting the open or subsequent raise of a betting round is said to re-raise. A player making a raise after previously checking in the same betting round is said to check-raise. The sum of the opening bet and all raises is the amount that all players in the hand must call in order to remain eligible to win the pot, subject to the table stakes rules described in the previous paragraph.
A bluff is when a player bets or raises when it is likely they do not have the best hand; it is often done in hopes that an opponent s will fold mediocre yet stronger hands. When a player bets or raises with a weak hand that has a chance of improvement on a later betting round, the bet or raise is classified as a semi-bluff.
On the other hand, a bet made by a player who hopes or expects to be called by weaker hands is classified as a value bet. In no-limit and pot-limit games, there is a minimum amount that is required to be bet in order to open the action. In games with blinds, this amount is usually the amount of the big blind. Standard poker rules require that raises must be at least equal to the amount of the previous bet or raise. In no-limit and pot-limit games, if a player opens action in a betting round by placing any number of chips in the pot without a verbal declaration, or if they place two or more chips in the pot of sufficient value to raise an outstanding bet or raise without a verbal declaration, then the full amount placed in the pot will be assumed to be the amount of the bet or raise.
In such cases, instead of slowing down the game by asking the dealer or another player to provide "change" a player may simply verbally declare the amount they are betting while placing a chip s of sufficient value to make good on the bet. Any "change" will be returned to them by the dealer if necessary. Today, most public cardrooms prefer for players to use the raise to standard as opposed to the raise by standard.
In the event of any ambiguity in a player's verbal action while raising, the player will normally be bound to raise to the stated amount. In fixed-limit games, the size of bets and raises is determined by the specified stakes. Also, in fixed-limit and spread-limit games most casinos cap the total number of raises allowed in a single betting round typically three or four, not including the opening bet of a round.
It is common to suspend this rule when there are only two players betting in the round called being heads-up , since either player can call the last raise if they wish. Pot-limit and no-limit games do not have a limit on the number of raises. If, because of opening or raising, there is an amount bet that the player in-turn has not paid, the player must at least match that amount, or must fold; the player cannot pass or call a lesser amount except where table stakes rules apply.
To call is to match a bet or match a raise. A betting round ends when all active players have bet an equal amount or everyone folds to a player's bet or raise. If no opponents call a player's bet or raise, the player wins the pot.
The second and subsequent calls of a particular bet amount are sometimes called overcalls. This term is also sometimes used to describe a call made by a player who has put money in the pot for this round already.
A player calling a raise before they have invested money in the pot in that round is cold calling. For example, if in a betting round, Alice bets, Dianne raises, and Carol calls, Carol "calls two bets cold". A player calling instead of raising with a strong hand is smooth calling or flat calling , a form of slow play.
Calling in the final betting round when a player thinks they do not have the best hand is called a crying call. Calling when a player has a relatively weak hand but suspects their opponent may be bluffing is called a hero call. Calling a bet prior to the final betting round with the intention of bluffing on a later betting round is called a float. In public cardrooms, placing a single chip in the pot of any value sufficient to call an outstanding bet or raise without a verbal action declaring otherwise always constitutes a call.
If necessary, any "change" from the chip will be returned to the player at the end of the betting round, or perhaps even sooner if this can conveniently be done.
If, when it is a player's turn to act, the player already has an oversized chip in the pot that has not yet been "changed" and that is of sufficient value to call an outstanding bet or raise, then the player may call by tapping the table as if checking. In public cardrooms and casinos where verbal declarations are binding, the word "call" is such a declaration.
Saying "I call" commits the player to the action of calling, and only calling. Note that the verb "see" can often be used instead of "call": However, terms such as "overseeing" and "cold seeing" are not valid. To fold is to discard one's hand and forfeit interest in the current pot. No further bets are required by the folding player, but the player cannot win. Folding may be indicated verbally or by discarding one's hand face down into the pile of other discards called the muck , or into the pot uncommon.
For this reason it is also called mucking. In stud poker played in the United States , it is customary to signal folding by turning all of one's cards face down. Once a person indicates a fold or states I fold , that person cannot re-enter the hand. In casinos in the United Kingdom , a player folds by giving their hand as is to the "house" dealer, who spreads the cards face up for the other players to see before mucking them.
When participating in the hand, a player is expected to keep track of the betting action. Losing track of the amount needed to call, called the bet to the player , happens occasionally, but multiple occurrences of this slow the game down and so it is discouraged. The dealer may be given the responsibility of tracking the current bet amount, from which each player has only to subtract their contribution, if any, thus far. To aid players in tracking bets, and to ensure all players have bet the correct amount, players stack the amount they have bet in the current round in front of them.
When the betting round is over a common phrase is "the pot's good" , the players will push their stacks into the pot or the dealer will gather them into the pot.
Tossing chips directly into the pot known as splashing the pot , though popular in film and television depictions of the game, causes confusion over the amount of a raise and can be used to hide the true amount of a bet.
Likewise, string raises , or the act of raising by first placing chips to call and then adding chips to raise, causes confusion over the amount bet. Both actions are generally prohibited at casinos and discouraged at least in other cash games. Most actions calls, raises or folds occurring out-of-turn —when players to the right of the player acting have not yet made decisions as to their own action—are considered improper, for several reasons.
First, since actions by a player give information to other players, acting out of turn gives the person in turn information that they normally would not have, to the detriment of players who have already acted. In some games, even folding in turn when a player has the option to check because there is no bet facing the player is considered folding out of turn since it gives away information which, if the player checked, other players would not have.
For instance, say that with three players in a hand, Player A has a weak hand but decides to try a bluff with a large opening bet. Player C then folds out of turn while Player B is making up their mind. Player B now knows that if they fold, A will take the pot, and also knows that they cannot be re-raised if they call. This may encourage Player B, if they have a good "drawing hand" a hand currently worth nothing but with a good chance to improve substantially in subsequent rounds , to call the bet, to the disadvantage of Player A.
Second, calling or raising out of turn, in addition to the information it provides, assumes all players who would act before the out of turn player would not exceed the amount of the out-of-turn bet. This may not be the case, and would result in the player having to bet twice to cover preceding raises, which would cause confusion. A player is never required to expose their concealed cards when folding or if all others have folded; this is only required at the showdown.
Many casinos and public cardrooms using a house dealer require players to protect their hands. This is done either by holding the cards or, if they are on the table, by placing a chip or other object on top. Unprotected hands in such situations are generally considered folded and are mucked by the dealer when action reaches the player. This can spark heated controversy, and is rarely done in private games. The style of game generally determines whether players should hold face-down cards in their hands or leave them on the table.
Holding "hole" cards allows players to view them more quickly and thus speeds up gameplay, but spectators watching over a player's shoulder can communicate the strength of that hand to other players, even unintentionally.
Unwary players can hold their hand such that a "rubbernecker" in an adjacent seat can sneak a peek at the cards. Lastly, given the correct light and angles, players wearing glasses can inadvertently show their opponents their hole cards through the reflection in their glasses.
Thus for most poker variants involving a combination of faceup and facedown cards most variants of stud and community are dealt in this manner , the standard method is to keep hole cards face-down on the table except when it is that player's turn to act. Making change out of the pot is allowed in most games; to avoid confusion, the player should announce their intentions first. Then, if opening or cold calling, the player may exchange a large chip for its full equivalent value out of the pot before placing their bet, or if overcalling may place the chip announcing that they are calling or raising a lesser amount and remove the change from their own bet for the round.
Making change should, in general, be done between hands whenever possible, when a player sees they are running low of an oft-used value. The house dealer at casinos often maintains a bank and can make change for a large amount of chips, or in informal games players can make change with each other or with unused chips in the set.
This prevents stoppages of play while a player figures change for a bet. Similarly, buying in for an additional amount should be done between hands once the player sees that they will be out of chips within a couple of hands if buy-ins cannot be handled by the dealer it can take two or three hands for an attendant to bring another tray to the table.
Touching another player's chips without permission is a serious breach of protocol and can result in the player being barred from the casino. Many tournaments require that larger denomination chips be stacked in front i.
This is to discourage attempts to hide strength. Some informal games allow a bet to be made by placing the amount of cash on the table without converting it to chips, as this speeds up play.
However, the cash can easily be "ratholed" removed from play by simply pocketing it which is normally disallowed, and in casinos leaving cash on a table is a security risk, so many games and virtually all casinos require a formal "buy-in" when a player wishes to increase their stake.
Players in home games typically have both cash and chips available; thus, if money for expenses other than bets is needed, such as food, drinks and fresh decks of cards, players typically pay out of pocket. In casinos and public cardrooms, however, the use of cash is occasionally restricted, so players often establish a small cache of chips called the "kitty", used to pay for such things.
Players contribute a chip of lowest value towards the kitty when they win a pot, and it pays for expenses other than bets such as "rent" formally known as time fees , tipping the dealer, buying fresh decks of cards some public cardrooms include this cost in the "rake" or other fees, while others charge for decks , and similar costs.
Public cardrooms have additional rules designed to speed up play, earn revenue for the casino such as the "rake" , improve security and discourage cheating. All poker games require some forced bets to create an initial stake for the players to contest, as well as an initial cost of being dealt each hand for one or more players. The requirements for forced bets and the betting limits of the game see below are collectively called the game's betting structure. An ante is a forced bet in which all players put an equal amount of money or chips into the pot before the deal begins.
Often this is either a single unit a one-value or the smallest value in play or some other small amount; a proportion such as a half or a quarter of the minimum bet is also common. An ante paid by every player ensures that a player who folds every round will lose money though slowly , thus providing all players with an incentive, however small, to play the hand rather than toss it in when the opening bet reaches them.
Antes are the most common forced bet in draw poker and stud poker but are uncommon in games featuring blind bets see next section. However, some tournament formats of games featuring blinds impose an ante to discourage extremely tight play. Antes encourage players to play more loosely by lowering the cost of staying in the hand calling relative to the current pot size, offering better pot odds. With antes, more players stay in the hand, which increases pot size and makes for more interesting play.
This is considered important to ensure good ratings for televised tournament finals. Most televised high-stakes cash games also use both blinds and antes. Televised cash games usually have one of the players, normally the dealer, pay for everyone to accelerate play. If there are six players for example, the dealer would toss six times the ante into the pot, paying for each person.
In live cash games where the acting dealer changes each turn, it is not uncommon for the players to agree that the dealer or some other position relative to the button provides the ante for each player.
This simplifies betting, but causes minor inequities if other players come and go or miss their turn to deal. During such times, the player can be given a special button indicating the need to pay an ante to the pot known as "posting"; see below upon their return.
Some cardrooms eliminate these inequities by always dealing all players into every hand whether they are present or not. In such cases casino staff or neighboring players under staff supervision will be expected to post antes and fold hands on behalf of absent players as necessary.
A blind bet or just blind is a forced bet placed into the pot by one or more players before the deal begins, in a way that simulates bets made during play. The most common use of blinds as a betting structure calls for two blinds: This two-blind structure, sometimes with antes, is the dominating structure of play for community card poker games such as Texas hold-em. Sometimes only one blind is used often informally as a "price of winning" the previous hand , and sometimes three are used this is sometimes seen in Omaha.
In the case of three blinds usually one quarter, one quarter, and half a normal bet amount , the first blind goes "on the button", that is, is paid by the dealer. A blind is usually a "live bet"; the amount paid as the blind is considered when figuring the bet to that player the amount needed to call during the first round. However, some situations, such as when a player was absent from the table during a hand in which they should have paid a blind, call for placing a "dead blind"; the blind does not count as a bet.
If there have been no raises when action first gets to the big blind that is, the bet amount facing them is just the amount of the big blind they posted , the big blind has the ability to raise or check. This right to raise called the option occurs only once. As with any raise, if their raise is now called by every player, the first betting round closes as usual. Similarly to a missed ante, a missed blind due to the player's temporary absence i. Upon the player's return, they must pay the applicable blind to the pot for the next hand they will participate in.
The need for this rule is eliminated in casinos that deal in absent players as described above. Also the rule is for temporary absences only; if a player leaves the table permanently, special rules govern the assigning of blinds and button see next subsection.
In some fixed-limit and spread-limit games, especially if three blinds are used, the big blind amount may be less than the normal betting minimum.
Players acting after a sub-minimum blind have the right to call the blind as it is, even though it is less than the amount they would be required to bet, or they may raise the amount needed to bring the current bet up to the normal minimum, called completing the bet. When one or more players pays the small or big blinds for a hand, then after that hand permanently leaves the game by "busting out" in a tournament or simply calling it a night at a public cardroom , an adjustment is required in the positioning of the blinds and the button.
There are three common rule sets to determine this:. In tournaments, the dead button and moving button rules are common replacement players are generally not a part of tournaments. Online cash games generally use the simplified moving button as other methods are more difficult to codify and can be abused by players constantly entering and leaving.
Casino card rooms where players can come and go can use any of the three rulesets, though moving button is most common. When a player immediately takes the place of a player who leaves, the player may have the option to either pay the blinds in the leaving player's stead, in which case play continues as if the player never left, or to "sit out" until the button has moved past him, and thus the chair is effectively empty for purposes of the blinds.
Many card rooms do not allow new players to sit out as it is highly advantageous for the new player, both to watch one or more hands without obligation to play, and to enter the game in a very "late" position on their first hand they see all other player's actions except the dealer's. For these reasons, new players must often post a "live" big blind to enter regardless of their position at the table.
The normal rules for positioning the blinds do not apply when there are only two players at the table. The player on the button is always due the small blind, and the other player must pay the big blind.
The player on the button is therefore the first to act before the flop, but last to act for all remaining betting rounds. A special rule is also applied for placement of the button whenever the size of the table shrinks to two players. If three or more players are involved in a hand, and at the conclusion of the hand one or more players have busted out such that only two players remain for the next hand, the position of the button may need to be adjusted to begin heads-up play.
The big blind always continues moving, and then the button is positioned accordingly. For example, in a three-handed game, Alice is the button, Dianne is the small blind, and Carol is the big blind. If Alice busts out, the next hand Dianne will be the big blind, and the button will skip past Dianne and move to Carol. On the other hand, if Carol busts out, Alice will be the big blind, Dianne will get the button and will have to pay the small blind for the second hand in a row.
A kill blind is a special blind bet made by a player who triggers the kill in a kill game see below. It is often twice the amount of the big blind or minimum bet known as a full kill , but can be 1. This blind is "live"; the player posting it normally acts last in the opening round after the other blinds, regardless of relative position at the table , and other players must call the amount of the kill blind to play.
As any player can trigger a kill, there is the possibility that the player must post a kill blind when they are already due to pay one of the other blinds. Rules vary on how this is handled. A bring-in is a type of forced bet that occurs after the cards are initially dealt, but before any other action. One player, usually chosen by the value of cards dealt face up on the initial deal, is forced to open the betting by some small amount, after which players act after them in normal rotation.
Because of this random first action, bring-ins are usually used in games with an ante instead of structured blind bets. The bring-in is normally assigned on the first betting round of a stud poker game to the player whose upcards indicate the poorest hand.
For example, in traditional high hand stud games and high-low split games, the player showing the lowest card pays the bring-in. In low hand games, the player with the highest card showing pays the bring-in. The high card by suit order can be used to break ties, but more often the person closest to the dealer in order of rotation pays the bring-in. In most fixed-limit and some spread-limit games, the bring-in amount is less than the normal betting minimum often half of this minimum.
The player forced to pay the bring-in may choose either to pay only what is required in which case it functions similarly to a small blind or to make a normal bet.
Players acting after a sub-minimum bring-in have the right to call the bring-in as it is, even though it is less than the amount they would be required to bet, or they may raise the amount needed to bring the current bet up to the normal minimum, called completing the bet. In a game where the bring-in is equal to the fixed bet this is rare and not recommended , the game must either allow the bring-in player to optionally come in for a raise, or else the bring-in must be treated as live in the same way as a blind, so that the player is guaranteed their right to raise on the first betting round the "option" if all other players call.
Some cash games, especially with blinds, require a new player to post when joining a game already in progress. Posting in this context means putting an amount equal to the big blind or the minimum bet into the pot before the deal. This amount is also called a "dead blind". The post is a "live" bet, meaning that the amount can be applied towards a call or raise when it is the player's turn to act.
If the player is not facing a raise when the action gets to them, they may also "check their option" as if they were in the big blind. A player who is away from their seat and misses one or more blinds is also required to post to reenter the game. In this case, the amount to be posted is the amount of the big or small blind, or both, at the time the player missed them. If both must be posted immediately upon return, the big blind amount is "live", but the small blind amount is "dead", meaning that it cannot be considered in determining a call or raise amount by that player.
Some house rules allow posting one blind per hand, largest first, meaning all posts of missed blinds are live. Posting is usually not required if the player who would otherwise post happens to be in the big blind.
This is because the advantage that would otherwise be gained by missing the blind, that of playing several hands before having to pay blinds, is not the case in this situation. It is therefore common for a new player to lock up a seat and then wait several hands before joining a table, or for a returning player to sit out several hands until the big blind comes back around, so that they may enter in the big blind and avoid paying the post.
For this same reason, only one set of missed blinds can be accumulated by the player; old missed blinds are removed when the big blind returns to that player's seat because the player was never in any position to gain from missing the blinds.
In online poker it is common for the post to be equal in size to a big blind and to be live, just like the big blind.